Glossary of Hydrogen-Infused Water
Talking about Echo Antioxidant Water™ can be confusing, especially with so many medical and scientific terms. Browse our glossary of terms associated with hydrogen-infused water to gain the knowledge you need to make informed decisions for your health.
Because Echo Antioxidant Water™ (also known as hydrogen-enriched and hydrogen-infused water) is still fairly new to many people, odds are you will come across a variety of unfamiliar terms. To help you more fully understand what Antioxidant Water™ is, how it is made, how it can benefit you, and more, we’ve compiled a glossary of common terms used when talking about hydrogen-infused water.
Acidic water, commonly known as acid water, is water that has a pH lower than 6.5, which is the lowest pH recommended for drinking water. Generally, you should not drink acidic water; however, it is believed to have antimicrobial effects that can benefit your skin and hair when you bathe or shower. You can also use acidic water to wash fresh produce and remove contaminants. If you wish to add acidic water to your health routine, our Echo Ultimate™ machine produces acidic water as one of four water types. To learn more about acidic water and its benefits, check out this blog post. (1, 2)
Caution: Do not drink any level of acidic water. It is for external use only. Here are the levels of acidic water that the Echo Ultimate™ produces along with what they should be used for:
- Level 1, Weak: Use this level for facial cleansing, oral hygiene, mouthwash, or irrigating plants and flowers.
- Level 2, Weak to Medium: Use this level as an astringent and for oral hygiene, gargling, and washing your hair.
- Level 3, Medium to Strong: Use this level for cleaning, such as around the kitchen.
- Level 4, Strong: Use strong acidic water to wash and sterilize fresh produce, meat, fish, and poultry.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
ATP is a molecule that carries energy in the cells of all living things and is produced by mitochondria. Energy is created by converting storage molecules (such as glycogen and fats) into ATP. ATP then carries the energy to areas in the cell where energy-consuming processes occur. This helps give your body the energy it needs to move and function properly. Studies show that molecular hydrogen may be able to support and protect mitochondrial concentration and function, which ultimately helps increase your energy. (3, 4, 5)
Aerobic bacteria are bacteria that require oxygen in order to live and grow. A few of the types of aerobic bacteria are lactobacillus, mycobacterium tuberculosis, and nocardia. You can find aerobic bacteria inside human and animal bodies, and because these bacteria require oxygen, they help detoxify the oxygen within the body. Not only that, but aerobic bacteria help break down food to produce energy. (6, 7)
Alkaline water is water with a pH of 8 or above. Because of its high pH, alkaline water is a highly effective cleaner and is ideal for cleaning oil and grease stains from tools, machinery, kitchen surfaces and more. Alkaline water is also perfect for disinfecting vegetables. The benefits of alkaline water are easily accessible through our Echo Ultimate™.
The Echo Ultimate™ offers four different levels of alkaline water. Each level will increase the pH of the water 1 pH higher than the last setting. For example: Alkaline level 1 is 1 pH higher than your source water. The four levels are used as following:
- Level 1, Weak: While we do not recommend drinking alkaline water, for those who drink alkaline water, this level is for an initial consumption period of four to seven days. This allows your body to slowly adjust to drinking alkaline water.
- Level 2, Weak to Medium: Those who drink alkaline water should move up to this level for three to four days after the initial consumption period. Do not drink alkaline water above this level.
- Level 3, Medium to Strong: This level can be used for cooking; however, we recommend cooking with filtered water.
- Level 4, Strong: This level is used for deep cleaning things like kitchen counters and washing fresh vegetables.
Warning: If you are going to drink alkaline water, be sure to never drink beyond level 2. However, according to the Mayo Clinic, there is no scientific evidence that fully verifies the claims made by supporters of drinking alkaline water. Instead, we recommend that you drink Antioxidant Water™ which contains molecular hydrogen which is supported by over 1,000 research studies and has over 40 proven health benefits. The benefits of drinking Antioxidant Water™ far surpass the claimed benefits of alkaline water.
Anaerobic bacteria are those that do not require oxygen to live and grow; instead, they use a variety of both organic and inorganic materials for respiration and growth. While most gut bacteria live in the gastrointestinal tract, anaerobic bacteria are found mainly in the colon. In the gut, anaerobic bacteria produce hydrogen and carbon dioxide gas via fermentative metabolism, which ultimately helps maintain the bacteria’s structure. If someone is deficient in anaerobic bacteria and thus doesn’t benefit from the hydrogen produced to help maintain a healthy gut, ingesting hydrogen-infused water can provide their gut with the molecular hydrogen it needs to stay healthy. (6, 9, 10)
The property of a given treatment, substance, molecule, etc., to reduce inflammation. (11) Studies show that gaseous hydrogen may have anti-inflammatory properties by fighting against oxidative stress. (12)
An agent that kills microorganisms, such as bacteria, or halts their growth. (13)
A substance or compound that helps suppress damage caused by free radicals. Antioxidants occur naturally in various foods and in the body. However, you can get more antioxidants from supplements if needed. Antioxidants help neutralize free radicals and prevent the damage they cause, thus helping protect and boost your overall health. Gaseous hydrogen has been shown to have selective antioxidant properties, meaning it helps reduce levels of toxic free radicals and thus reduces inflammation and other side effects of oxidative stress. If you want to learn more about antioxidants and how they interact with oxidants, check out this blog post. (14, 15)
Antioxidant Water™ is water that is infused with hydrogen gas. Studies over the years show that hydrogen-infused water can help with a variety of health issues in addition to fighting free radicals and reducing inflammation. (12, 15)
BPA, which stands for bisphenol A, is an industrial chemical that has been used to create a variety of polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resin products since the 1950s. Some of the most common products that contain BPA are water bottles, plastic food storage containers, food cans, and some dental sealants or composites. Research shows that BPA can leak into beverages or food stored in containers made with BPA, which has caused concern among many people, as they claim that BPA is harmful to our health. However, the FDA states that BPA is currently approved for use in food containers and packaging and that exposure to BPA occurs in only very small amounts that are not harmful. (16, 17)
Chloramine is an inorganic disinfecting compound made up of chlorine and ammonia. Chloramine is said to help disinfect tap water contaminated with harmful viruses, bacteria, and organisms. Many water facilities have used it since the 1930s, and the United States Environmental Protection Agency lists chloramine as safe to drink. While chloramine may be considered safe, some claim that it can cause water to smell or taste different, be harmful to aquatic animals, or even become harmful when mixed with other materials. If you are concerned about consuming chloramine in your drinking water, all of our Echo Filters remove chloramines, among other contaminants. (18, 19, 20)
Chlorine is a common chemical agent, but it is toxic and can be irritating to a human’s eyes or respiratory system. Chlorine is commonly used to disinfect drinking water as well as swimming pool water. When chlorine mixes with water, it forms hypochlorous acid and hypochlorites. It can also react with ammonia to create chloramines. In water and solutions with a pH over 4, you may still have small amounts of molecular chlorine. While the World Health Organization says that there have been no adverse effects related to chlorine in drinking water, some people may be more sensitive to it than others and may experience irritation or side effects. All of our Echo Filters remove chlorine from your water prior to drinking. (21, 22)
A term used to refer to various mental abilities, including those of learning, reasoning, thinking, problem solving, attention, and decision making. Studies have shown that hydrogen-enriched water can help support proper brain function and reduce symptoms of cognitive decay or impairment, such as those related to aging or injury. (23, 24)
According to the Safe Drinking Water Act, a contaminant is a chemical, biological, physical, or radiological substance or matter that is found in water. Essentially, this means that a contaminant is something in water other than the water molecules. Generally speaking, drinking water is expected to contain small amounts of contaminants; however, higher levels of contaminants or certain contaminants may be harmful to consume. Some common contaminants include sediment from rivers or lakes, bleach, pesticides, metals, bacteria, parasites, plutonium, and more. To help protect your health, all of our Echo Filters help remove a variety of contaminants from your drinking water. (25)
A double-blind study is when neither the experimenters nor the participants know who is receiving the specific treatment being studied. This type of study is designed to help avoid bias in the study results. Many studies on molecular hydrogen and hydrogen-infused water are double-blind studies to help ensure the accuracy and reliability of their results. (26)
The process of filtering water twice. This process can help ensure the purity of your drinking water, although a single filtration process is often sufficient. Our Echo Retro specifically has a dual filtration system.
Echo Antioxidant Water™
Echo Antioxidant Water™ is water that is infused with hydrogen gas. Studies over the years show that hydrogen-infused water can help with a variety of health issues in addition to fighting free radicals and reducing inflammation. (12, 15)
Echo Antioxidant Water™ Machine
An Echo Antioxidant Water™ Machine is a unit designed to create Echo Antioxidant Water™. It does this by separating hydrogen gas from a stream of water via electrolysis. The hydrogen gas is then dissolved into a second stream of water for you to drink.
The technology with which our Echo Water™ Machines create Antioxidant Water™, and what sets our machines apart from others. This patented module technology is designed so that the metal from the electrodes do not touch the water you drink. Instead, hydrogen gas is separated from one stream of water and dissolved into a second. With this technology, we can avoid creating alkaline water and changing your water’s pH. This also means that the cathode within the Echo Module™ does not experience buildup like many other machines available on the market. To learn more about the Echo Module™, check out this blog post.
A typically metal conductor that conducts an electrical current into and out of a medium. The electrode that produces the electrons is called a cathode, and the electrode that receives electrons is the anode. (27)
The process of shocking water with electricity to convert a small amount of water into hydrogen and oxygen gases. Generally, electrolysis changes the water’s pH and separates water into acidic and alkaline water. However, our Echo Antioxidant Water™ Machines use proprietary technology to perform electrolysis without changing the water’s pH level. The process of electrolysis is what makes it possible to add hydrogen gas to your water. Electrolysis also gives your water an oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of -400mV to -500mV. Drinking water with this ORP helps support healthy gut function while also stimulating the growth of anaerobic bacteria. (28, 29)
A physical, biological, or chemical substance that constrains the proper development of an ecosystem. Environmental stressors can be natural or caused by human activity. Some common environmental stressors include wildfires, various types of pollution, and thermal stressors such as natural hot-water vents on the ocean floor or industrial discharges of heated water. Human exposure to environmental stressors such as air pollution, biotoxins, and pesticides have been shown to contribute to oxidative stress. (30, 31)
Water that has had unwanted elements, such as contaminants and sediment, removed via a filter. Drinking filtered water can help support proper nutrient absorption, metabolism, function of bodily systems, and healthy digestion. Filtered water can also support healthy skin, detoxify your body, and provide better-tasting water. (32, 33)
Free radicals are unstable atoms that can cause damage to your cells, resulting in disease or illness. The human body has a natural ability to fight off free radicals; however, aging weakens this ability, and an overabundance of free radicals can overwhelm the body’s natural defenses against them. With more free radicals, you experience more oxidative stress and cell damage, which can lead to a variety of diseases and illnesses. (34)
Known as the “hunger hormone,” ghrelin occurs mainly in the stomach, and its most common use is to stimulate appetite. Studies show that ghrelin can also influence physiological function by interacting with the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1a). Found in the central nervous and peripheral systems, this receptor, when activated by ghrelin, mediates various activities within the body, including the flow of growth hormone, the stimulation of food intake and appetite, and the maintenance of the body’s overall homeostasis. Studies show that molecular hydrogen can increase the amount of ghrelin production, thus promoting ghrelin’s benefits. (35, 36, 37)
Glyphosate is a common herbicide used to control the growth of weeds and grasses during the cultivation of various crops, including corn, nuts, fruits, and vegetables. The Environmental Protection Agency lists glyphosate as having no risk of health concerns to humans; however, many people have concerns about ingesting glyphosate as part of their food and water. To help eliminate any potential risk of harmful side effects caused by glyphosate, our Echo Filters work to remove this herbicide from your drinking water. (38)
In biological terms, homeostasis refers to a self-regulating process designed to adjust conditions to maintain stability and create optimal internal conditions for survival. In other words, it is when all systems in the body are properly working together to help maintain optimal health and function. Studies show that inflammation can disrupt homeostasis. Studies also show that hydrogen gas can help reduce inflammation by reducing oxidative stress. As a result, hydrogen gas can help restore homeostasis to internal systems that are out of balance. (39, 40)
The hydrogen atom is the simplest member of all chemical elements. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, flammable gas, and it is the most abundant element in the universe. Normally, hydrogen consists of a pair of atoms, creating the molecule H2. Over the decades, scientists have found that hydrogen gas has therapeutic properties and offers 40+ health benefits. Not only that, but molecular hydrogen has been found to reduce oxidative stress, modulate signals within the body, and more. (41, 42)
Hydroxyl radicals are a specific type of free radical, and they have the most active chemical properties and highest reaction rate. This causes them to do the most damage among all the free radicals. Hydroxyl radicals target cell membranes, causing extreme cellular damage and, in some cases, cell death or mutation. (43)
Inflammation is a common and naturally occurring response triggered by tissue damage. This defensive response is your body’s way of protecting itself from further damage and infection. Inflammation helps localize damage, kill harmful agents, and heal the body.
There are two main types of inflammation: acute and chronic. Acute inflammation lasts only a few days and is your body’s typical response to damage. Chronic inflammation often involves inflammation that lasts longer than normal and is more intense. With chronic inflammation, your body thinks it is constantly under attack and thus continues to fight. When this happens, white blood cells (your body’s defenders) can end up attacking healthy tissue, which can lead to a variety of diseases, including heart disease, diabetes, arthritis, cancer, and more. Hydrogen-infused water has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties, helping reduce cases of chronic inflammation and relieve associated symptoms. (12, 44, 45)
KDF Media stands for Kinetic Degradation Fluxion Media. KDF Media, a mixture of zinc and copper, is a chemical compound often used for water filtration, along with other filters. KDF Media is known to kill algae and fungi while removing bacteria, chlorine, rust, pesticides, iron, calcium, and various other compounds. Our Synergy Home Filter™ system uses KDF media to help purify and filter your water. (46)
Lactic acid, also called lactate, is a chemical produced by the body in your muscles during exercise. While many believe that lactate buildup results in muscle soreness, it actually doesn’t. It does, however, cause the burning sensation you feel in active muscles while working out. Rather, the soreness often comes from an inflammatory response to repair the muscles. Hydrogen gas has been shown to help reduce both inflammation and blood lactate, which can help reduce post-exercise soreness. (12, 47, 48, 49)
Microclustering is the pseudoscientific claim by marketers of “healthy water” that their water somehow contains stabilized microclustered water. They say this microclustered water has numerous health benefits, like increased cellular hydration. Unfortunately, no scientific evidence exists for the occurrence of microclustering or its benefits. (50)
The mitochondria is an organelle in the cytoplasm of nearly all eukaryotic cells, or cells that have a nucleus. The mitochondria’s main function is to produce energy, specifically ATP. It also stores calcium that can be used for cell signaling, mediates cell growth and death, and generates heat. In short, the mitochondria is the battery to each cell, providing the power behind cellular functions. Molecular hydrogen has been shown to support proper mitochondrial function and protect mitochondria from damaging effects. (51, 52)
Also known as an oxidizing agent, an oxidant can exist as a single molecule, an element, or a compound (mixture of substances). Oxidants accept electrons, which results in oxidation. While oxidation happens regularly and naturally, oxidants can damage DNA, protein, and other materials within the body. Oxidants that cause cell damage can be offset by counteracting interactions with antioxidants. To learn more about oxidants and their relation to antioxidants, check out this blog post. (53)
Commonly abbreviated as ORP, oxidation-reduction potential is a measurement in millivolts (mV) that reflects a molecule’s ability to oxidize or reduce another molecule. Molecules that oxidize have a positive ORP value, and molecules that reduce oxidation have a negative ORP value. ORP determines a molecule’s potential to react with others, not the actual reaction. This means that ORP reflects stored energy; the greater the ORP value, the greater the molecule’s ability to undergo a reaction.
Our Echo Antioxidant Water™ Machines use a process called electrolysis to create hydrogen-enriched water that has an ORP of -400mV to -500mV. When we ingest things like pesticides, heavy metals, or other contaminants with our food or drink, the polarity of our gut lining can be switched to a positive polarity. This creates an environment where more aerobic gut flora can thrive instead of anaerobic microflora, which can result in disrupted gut function. Drinking hydrogen-enriched water with a negative ORP can help the gut lining return to a normal negative polarity, which will create the necessary environment for anaerobic microflora to grow and promote healthy, proper digestion. For more information about your gut’s natural ORP, check out this video. (54, 55)
Oxidative stress occurs when there is an imbalance between the amount of free radicals in your body and your body’s ability to counteract or fight against those free radicals with antioxidants. Oxidative stress has been shown to be a leading cause of many different diseases and illnesses, including Parkinson’s disease, cancer, heart failure, and more. Molecular hydrogen has been shown to help fight against free radicals and reduce oxidative stress. For more information about oxidative stress and how you can reduce it, check out this blog post. (56, 57)
An oxide is a chemical compound where oxygen combines with another element. The most common form of oxides are metal oxides, although there are many other types of oxides. Some common oxides include iron oxides, chlorine dioxide, aluminum oxide, and magnesium oxide. These and other oxides can be harmful to your health in varying degrees, and they can make their way into your drinking water. Our Echo Go™ helps separate and expel oxides to better protect your health and clean your drinking water. (58)
Ozone is a compound made up of three oxygen molecules, and it occurs naturally. Ozone is also known as “the world’s most powerful commercially available disinfectant,” and it is commonly used as a treatment for drinking water. When used with filters, it is said to help remove natural organic material from water. Various government organizations have differing opinions and regulations about using ozone, but the United States Environmental Protection Agency says that ozone meets the requirements for the Clean Water Act rules.
While ozone may be generally considered safe, exposure to ozone can cause a variety of side effects for those who may be more sensitive to this particular compound. Side effects include coughing, headaches, dry throat, shortness of breath, and more. While exposure to ozone depends on how long you are around it and the amount of exposure, removing ozone from your drinking water can help those more sensitive to it to avoid the side effects. Our Echo Go™ expels ozone from your water to help make sure you drink only pure and clean water. (59, 60, 61)
Also known as particulate matter (PM), particulates are a mixture of liquid droplets and solid particles. Some common components of particulate matter include dust, soot, smoke, or dirt, as well as particles that we cannot see. These mixtures often linger in the air but can also be found in your water and can be harmful to your health; however, all of our Echo Antioxidant Water™ machines filter them out of your drinking water. (62)
A pesticide is a substance used to control, repel, or kill certain types of plants, insects, or animals. They are commonly used in agriculture to keep pests at bay and promote proper growth of crops. Pesticides include herbicides that kill plants, insecticides that kill insects, fungicides that kill mold and mildew, disinfectants that kill bacteria, and other compounds used to kill animals such as mice and rats.
Because pesticides are so commonly used in farming, many people are exposed to them via their food. However, pesticides can get into water systems via runoff. Some of our Echo Antioxidant Water™ Machines, such as the Echo H2 Machine™, use strong filters to help remove pesticides from your drinking water. (63, 64)
pH, which stands for power of hydrogen or potential hydrogen, is the measure of acidity and alkalinity of a solution based on a scale. It measures the relative amount of free hydrogen and hydroxyl ions in a given solution. pH can range between 0 and 14. A solution with a pH under 7 is considered acidic — that is, it has more free hydrogen ions. A solution with a pH over 7 is considered a base because it has more hydroxyl ions. Water typically has a pH of 7 in its purest form. The United States Environmental Protection Agency recommends a pH of between 6.5 and 8.5 for drinking water.
The body’s internal pH ranges between 7.35 and 7.45. Your body works hard to strictly regulate its pH levels, as changes can lead to a variety of problems with tissues and organs. Anything greater than 7.8 or below 6.8 is considered fatal. Our Echo Ultimate™ can produce alkaline and acidic water, which, at some levels, is outside of the recommended pH levels and not recommended for drinking (see Acidic Water and Alkaline Water entries in this glossary). All of our machines produce hydrogen-enriched water that maintains the same pH level of the water you put into the machine. This means that you can enjoy the benefits of Antioxidant Water™ while also knowing that you are drinking water at a safe pH level. (2, 65, 66, 67)
Electrodes that have a platinum outer covering. At Synergy Science™, we use titanium electrodes as part of the electrolysis process; however, the electrodes we use are covered in platinum, unlike many other companies. Although titanium has a strong corrosion resistance, we choose to cover our electrodes in platinum — as seen in our Echo Module™ — to ensure that the water you drink never touches the metal from the electrodes. Platinum is often used to make sealed electrodes, as well as for cathodic protection (a process used to help control the corrosion of metal). By covering our electrodes in platinum, your Echo Antioxidant Water™ Machine will experience less corrosion and last longer. (68, 69)
Abbreviation for parts per million. A measurement to determine the concentration level of a solvent or particle in a solution, ppm refers to one item in a million of anything that is the same size, and it is typically used to define small concentration amounts. At Synergy Science™, we use ppm to determine the concentration of hydrogen gas that is infused into your drinking water. (70)
Proton Exchange Membrane
A proton exchange membrane (PEM), also called a polymer electrolyte membrane, is used in water electrolysis. PEM water electrolysis splits water into its constituent parts: hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2). These two constituents are stored on either side of a proton exchange membrane. When a DC voltage is applied to the electrolyzer, water fed to the anode (or oxygen electrode) is oxidized to oxygen and protons, while electrons are released. The protons (H+ ions) pass through the PEM to the cathode (or hydrogen electrode), where they meet electrons from the other side of the circuit and are reduced to hydrogen gas. Our Echo Go™ and Echo H2 Pitcher™ use the Proton Exchange Membrane, along with Solid Polymer Electrolysis, to create your Antioxidant Water™. (71, 72)
Reactive Oxygen Species
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a term that describes a variety of free radicals and reactive molecules derived from the oxygen molecule. The production of these oxygen-based radicals is detrimental to all aerobic species — that is, species that require oxygen to live. Studies have found that ROS play a role in various cell signals, including cell death. Therefore, detoxifying ROS is crucial to the survival of aerobic life forms, and in fact, our bodies have a number of defense mechanisms, including the production of superoxide dismutase and other antioxidants, to meet this need. However, an imbalance between ROS and our capacity to combat them can lead to oxidative stress. (73)
A type of water purification process that helps remove a variety of contaminants from the water by using pressure to force the water through a semipermeable membrane, leaving contaminants behind. If you have the Echo H2 Server™, you will need to connect your machine to a reverse osmosis or other filtration system. We also recommend that the water you use in your Echo H2 Pitcher™, Echo Retro, or Echo Go™ come from a filtration system, such as a reverse osmosis system. (74)
Generally, a selective antioxidant is an antioxidant that targets and eliminates specific types of free radicals. Diatomic hydrogen (H2) has been shown to have selective antioxidant properties, as it selectively targets and reduces toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS), ultimately helping to reduce cell death and inflammation. (15)
The process of how the function and morphology of cells fluctuate due to modified signals. Signal modulators, such as cytokines (proteins involved in the immune response), regulate intra- and extra-cellular signaling, which in turn activates the appropriate cellular machinery. (75) Some signal modulators, whether they inhibit a cellular signal or activate one, are destructive. For example, the destructive hydroxyl radical is a signal modulator in that it inhibits particular cellular signals, leading to cell death. Molecular hydrogen, however, can be a helpful signal modulator. Studies show that molecular hydrogen can inhibit intracellular signals that would otherwise lead to harmful reactions; it does this by reducing ROS. (76, 77)
Solid Polymer Electrolysis
Solid polymer water electrolysis is an advanced method of water electrolysis that uses a proton exchange membrane to produce hydrogen gas. The water moves through the proton exchange membrane toward the cathode and gets an electron there to generate hydrogen gas, a powerful antioxidant. We use this technology in our Echo Go™ portable Antioxidant Water™ bottle. (78)
Metals that are able to dissolve, particularly in water. Soluble metals include mercury, nickel, lead, copper, chromium, and arsenic. These metals are also known as heavy metals, and they can end up in drinking water, especially drinking water from wells or systems without good filtration. Soluble metals can get into the water supply via plumbing, mining, cement plants, petroleum refineries, and more. They can accumulate in living tissue and threaten overall health, particularly for children. Our Echo Antioxidant Water™ Machines use high-quality filters to help remove metals from your drinking water. (79, 80)
Also commonly known as hexagonal or magnetized water, “structured water” describes water that has been altered to form clusters of a hexagonal structure. Some claim that structured water helps improve energy, digestion, and skin complexion, among other things. While there are some studies on structured water, the results are unclear, and more studies are needed; however, researchers have not pursued new studies, and many have now deemed structured water a scam. (81)
Also known as SOD, superoxide dismutase is an antioxidant enzyme that scavenges and targets the superoxide anion, preventing the production of peroxynitrite (an oxidant that strongly induces cell death). Hydrogen-enriched water has been shown to help increase SOD levels, which can help fight against the effects of oxidation. (82, 83)
Total Dissolved Solids
Abbreviated as TDS, total dissolved solids is a measurement of all contaminants contained in drinking water. These contaminants can come from agricultural runoff, sewage, industrial wastewater, salts from de-icing roads, and more.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has defined two levels of drinking-water contaminants: primary and secondary. The National Primary Drinking Water Regulations set mandatory water quality standards for drinking water contaminants. These enforceable standards called “maximum contaminant levels” (MCLs) are established to protect the public from drinking water contaminants that pose a health risk. An MCL is the maximum allowable amount of a contaminant in drinking water. (84)
National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations set non-mandatory water quality standards for 15 contaminants that are not considered to present a risk to human health; TDS is listed among these. The EPA does not enforce these “secondary maximum contaminant levels” (SMCLs). These regulations are guidelines to assist in managing drinking water for aesthetic considerations, such as taste, color, and odor. (84)
Water containing TDS concentrations below 1,000 milligrams per liter is usually acceptable to consumers. However, high levels of TDS may be objectionable due to the taste and excessive scaling in water pipes, heaters, boilers, and household appliances. Echo Filters help reduce the amount of total dissolved solids in your drinking water for cleaner, better tasting water. (85)
Tritan™ plastic is a type of plastic that is safer, more durable, and more aesthetically pleasing than traditional plastic. One of its main advantages is that it is manufactured with zero BPA or other bisphenol compounds, making it a truly BPA-free product. For more information about Tritan™ plastic, check out this blog post. (86)
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We hope that this glossary helps you understand more about hydrogen-infused water and what it can do for you. For more information about our Echo Antioxidant Water™ or hydrogen-enriched water in general, please visit our website!